'Policing Models' refer to alternative ways of 'Doing Policing' which might relate to:
- The policing style of the whole police organisation - How it is oriented and what it views as priorities for the police organisation.
- The policing approach adopted by units within a police organisation, how those units are to go about their specific function.
- Policing techniques which at least some sections of the police organisation adopt in order to fulfil their function.
For these reasons differing policing models are not necessarily exclusive: one model may be chosen for one area of police work and another for a different area - for example, the same police organisation may adopt a 'zero-tolerance' approach to domestic violence but a much more 'tolerant' approach to possession of drugs. In other words, to an extent, policing models offer a form of menu which police policy-makers can draw from, rather than a series of 'either/or' choices. Furthermore, some policing models work well together and can be variations on a common theme. However, this is not always the case!
In contemporary policing the major policing models on this 'menu' are:
- Community Policing
- Zero-Tolerance Policing
- Problem-Oriented Policing
- Intelligence-led Policing
For a review of the community policing, problem-oriented and intelligence-led policing models consult Chapter 15 of Tim Newburn's Handbook of Policing.